Leopold Sudaryono tackles the problem of prison overcrowding in Indonesia. In 2011, there were 144,000 prisoners in the country. Prisons were reported to be overcrowded by 45 per cent on average. Among the factors contributing to the problem are lack of alternative sentencing options at trial and delays in the administration of the criminal justice system.

In the Indonesian context, prison overcrowding is a sign of a disintegrating criminal justice system, in which law enforcement agencies prioritise the function of their own institutions at the expense of other parts of the system.